Development of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for the Removal of Some Toxic Metals from Pharmaceutical Wastewater


  • John T. Mathew
  • Monday Musah
  • Yakubu Azeh
  • Musa Muhammad


Environmental, Heavy, Langmuir, Metal, Nanocomposites, Pharmaceutical, Wastewater


Among the most significant sources of environmental contamination are
pharmaceutical wastewaters, which are often contaminated with heavy
metals that pose significant threats to ecosystems as well as public health.
The nanoparticles was characterized using XRD, HRSEM/EDX and FTIR.
The XRD analysis of the nanoparticles identified 2θ (theta), of 30.2º, 36.3º,
44.2º, 54.3º, 58.2º, 63.5º, and 74.6º which correspond to the crystal lattice
planes of (220), (311), (400), (422), (511), (440), and (533), respectively.
The diffraction peaks associated with Fe3O4 at 2θ of 18.02º, 29.4º, and
43.3º, related to the crystal planes of (111), (220), and (400), respectively of
the Fe3O4 phase. The HRSEM image of the nanoparticles exhibited
spherical-shaped structures of Fe3O4, and some irregular shapes. The
effects of the dosage; consequently, the impact of the quantity of adsorbent
used, ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 g, has been investigated. The results indicate
that as the amount of adsorbent is increased from 0.1 to 0.3 g, the
effectiveness of adsorption improves, while temperature, the efficiency
improved from 50.03% to 78.01% for Pb ions, from 52.15% to 82.43% for
Cd ions, and from 56.41% to 88.71% for Cu ions and contact time; the
removal efficiency for Pb ions rises from 25.49% to 68.43%, for Cd ions from
29.30% to 75.71%, and for Cu ions from 31.08% to 78.31%, respectively, on
the removal percentage of toxic metal ions were studied.. This research
offers a sustainable and eco-friendly solution to mitigate toxic metal
contamination in pharmaceutical effluents, protecting the environment and
human well-being while advancing the field of wastewater treatment




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